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2019 αi优质职场“健康力”特别策划 | 人体工学

关注度:155 发布时间: 2019-12-26  来源:优质职场 分享




作者:Christiane Eve Kelley 

 Ergonomics  人体工学

At work, your office space is like your “home away from home”. You can spend up to nine hours at your desk or more if you are inclined to overtime. Given how long you are in this area, it is only natural that your office space is catered to help you, rather than hurt you.



To begin, there has been extensive research proving that working in an office at a computer can be bad for your health, for instance, a recent article conducted on Estonian workers showed that the majority of workers will end up with low back, neck, shoulder, or wrist/hand pain [1]. The question now is how an office can combat these issues. Starting the two staples of the workplace: your desk and chair. It is important to have your chair at a height where your feet lie flat on the floor, it is also to have a chair with armrests and support for your back. Keep your desk at a level where you can adjust yourself. The Mayo Clinic suggests you pad the edge of your desk or use a wrist rest, as it can be bad for circulation [2].

首先,大量研究已经显示,坐在办公室里对着电脑工作对身体不好。例如,一篇针对爱沙尼亚员工的最新研究文章显示,大多数对着电脑工作的员工最后会下背痛、脖子痛、肩膀痛,或手腕痛/手痛。现在的问题是,如何对付这些困扰。我们先从办公场所最基本的两件办公家具开始:桌子和椅子。桌子的高度要让你的双脚能平踩在地面上,椅子要带扶手且能支撑你的背部,这两点很重要。使桌子保持在一个高度,让你可以调整自己的坐姿。美国的梅奥诊所(The Mayo Clinic)建议你在桌子边缘垫一个垫子,或使用腕托,不然会对血液循环系统造成危害。

In a collaboration with “The Strategist”, the president of the American Chiropractic Association’s Council on Occupational Health, Dr. Scott Bautch helped recommend some affordable but highly effective ergonomic chairs, such as the “Brenton Studio Radley Task Chair”, which allows for a maximum range of motion, to allow workers to adjust to any position desired. Another chair recommended was the “Easy Posture Lumbar Back Support” chair, which focuses on lumbar support, specifically keeping office workers in a good posture. If purchasing a new chair is not feasible, the “Gaiam Balance Disc” can sit comfortably on your current chair, focusing on your core. These products range from 480 RMB to 90 RMB [3].

在与“The Strategist”网站的一项合作中,美国脊椎按摩协会职业健康分会(The American Chiropractic Association’s Council on Occupational Health)会长Scott Bautch博士推荐了一些价格实惠但非常有效的人体工学椅,例如:Brenton Studio的Radley办公椅(“Brenton Studio Radley Task Chair”),这款椅子可以在*大范围内活动,员工可以将椅子调整到任何自己喜欢的位置。另外一款推荐的椅子是轻松姿势腰背部支撑椅(“Easy Posture Lumbar Back Support” chair,),这款椅子主要针对腰部支撑,特别是可以帮助员工保持良好的坐姿。如果买新椅子不可行的话,那么可以使用Gaiam平衡盘(“Gaiam Balance Disc”),它能被平稳地放在现有的椅子上,帮助你集中核心力量,改善坐姿。以上这些产品的价格在90-480元人民币之间。


Meanwhile, a publication in the Journal of Humanities and Social Science showed that a suitable workstation not only helps workers experience a healthier living, but also promotes a much higher level of job satisfaction [4].



If it is not possible to change the office layout, there are other ways to combat work related muscular pain and eye strain. There are a few stretch and flex (SF) activities that can be used to reduce the risk of musculoskeletal pain. These stretches affect both the mind and body, as workers reported having increased alertness and focus, as well as reporting improvement on muscle function in the arms [5]. The same study found that the top 3 injuries in the workplace were sprains, cuts, and rotator cuff injuries, mostly caused by overexertion and the position the worker was left in. It was noted that office injuries reduced by half after a consistent SF program was implemented [5].



If an employer wishes to assess the musculoskeletal stressors in their office, the best tested method would be to apply the NERPA (Novel Ergonomic Postural Assessment) method [6]. The Mayo Clinic has a useful tutorial on the 8 most recommended stretches for office workers, all of which can be completed from the confines of your own desk. These stretches include a shoulder, upper arm, chest, chin, head, side of neck, lower back, and thigh stretch [7].

如果雇主想评估办公室内骨骼肌的压力源,可以采用已经过检测的最新人体工学姿势评估法(NERPA method)。梅奥诊所推出了一个辅导教程,内容是最适合办公室员工做的8项伸展运动,包括:肩膀、上臂、胸部、下巴、头部、颈侧、下背、大腿伸展,且这些伸展运动都能在你的办公桌前完成。


For eye strain issues, the easiest preventative measure is the “20-20-20” rule, which is, every 20 minutes, take a 20 second break to look at something 20 feet (~6 meters) away [8].



These preventative measures are crucial for keeping workers healthy, efficient, and happy. However, there is more than just a physical aspect to keeping workers healthy.



[1] Builder, M. “The Best Ergonomic Office Chairs, According to a Chiropractor and an Orthopedic Surgeon.” The Strategist, 08 Nov. 2018,  http://nymag.com/strategist/article/best-ergonomic-office-chairs.html, Accessed 11 July 2019.

[2] Choi et al. (2017) Effects on the Reduction of & Musculoskeletal Disorders & Injuries. Professional Safety Journal ASSP. May 2017: 38-43.

[3] Ikonne, C.N. (2014) Influence of Workstation and Work Posture Ergonomics on Job Satisfaction of Librarians in the Federal and State University Libraries in Southern Nigeria. IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science (IOSRJHSS), 19, 78-84.

[4] Khandan M, Vosoughi Sh, Poursadeghiyan M, Azizi F, Ahounbar E, Koohpaei A. Ergonomic Assessment of Posture Risk Factors Among Iranian Workers: An Alternative to Conventional Methods. Iranian Rehabilitation Journal. 2018; 16(1):11-16. 


[5] Mayo Clinic Staff. "Office ergonomics: Your how-to guide." Mayo Clinic, Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, 27 Apr. 2019, https://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/adult-health/in-depth/office-ergonomics/art-20046169, Accessed 9 July 2019.

[6] Mayo Clinic Staff. “Healthy Lifestyle: Office Stretches.” Mayo Clinic, Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, 04 Jan. 2017,https://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/adult-health/multimedia/stretching/sls-20076525?s=6, Accessed 11 July 2019.

[7] Naveeen Kumar Muniraju, Amarnath HK, Ashwini MJ: A Review on Effects of Electronic Gadgets on Eye. Journal of Ayurveda Physicians and Surgeons. 2018;5 (1):34-36.

[8] Oha et al.: Individual and work-related risk factors for musculoskeletal pain: a cross-sectional study among Estonian computer users. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2014 15:181.

- 我是健康小贴士 -


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